[The idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome and chronic eosinophilic leukemia]

L Chrobák, J Voglová
Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství 2005, 51 (12): 1385-93
Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome is a heterogenous group of hematological disorders characterized by eosinophilia (> 1.5 x 10(9)/l) persistent for more than 6 months, exclusion of reactive eosinophilia from other causes, such as parasitic infections or allergy, and evidence of end-organ damage. According to World Health Organization the exclusion includes all neoplastic disorders in which eosinophils are part of the neoplastic clone. Excluded should be also T cell population with aberant phenotype and abnormal cytokine production, recently considert also as "lymphocytic" variants of the HES [42]. HES has to be reclassified as chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) when there is evidence for clonality based on the presence of chromosomal abnormalities or inactivation of X-chromosome in female patients. The successful empiric treatment of patients with tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib (Glivec) suggested the presence of an imatinib-sensitive tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The identification of a specific intersticial chromosome deletion del(4)(q12;q12) creating the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene confirmed this hypothesis. Patients carrying this gene should be reclassified as CEL and detection of this gene is a positive predictor for response to imatinib therapy. Effective doses of imatinib are 100 mg/day. The side effects are minimal. The only exception is an acute left ventricular dysfunction which has been reported in three patients within the first week of treatment with imatinib. Imatinib has been successfully used also in some patients with the constitutively activated thyrosine kinase ETV6-PDGFRbeta [1] and in systemic mast cell disease associated with eosinophilia. Other therapeutical options for HES/CEL have been mentioned. The resistence to imatinib and the possibilities how to overcome it are discussed.

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