Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 function by 17-allylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin in Hodgkin's lymphoma cells down-regulates Akt kinase, dephosphorylates extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and induces cell cycle arrest and cell death

Georgios V Georgakis, Yang Li, Georgios Z Rassidakis, Hector Martinez-Valdez, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Anas Younes
Clinical Cancer Research 2006 January 15, 12 (2): 584-90

PURPOSE: Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a chaperone for several client proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, signal transduction, and cell cycle control. HSP90 is abundantly expressed by a variety of tumor types and has been recently targeted for cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to determine the role of HSP90 in promoting growth and survival of Hodgkin's lymphoma and to determine the molecular consequences of inhibiting HSP90 function by the small-molecule 17-allylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-AAG) in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: HSP90 expression in Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines was determined by Western blot and in primary lymph node sections from patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma by immunohistochemistry. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle fractions were determined by flow cytometry. Expression of intracellular proteins was determined by Western blot.

RESULTS: HSP90 is overexpressed in primary and cultured Hodgkin's lymphoma cells. Inhibition of HSP90 function by 17-AAG showed a time- and dose-dependent growth inhibition of Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines. 17-AAG induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which were associated with a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4, CDK 6, and polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), and induced apoptosis by caspase-dependent and caspase-independent mechanisms. Furthermore, 17-AAG depleted cellular contents of Akt, decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and reduced cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein levels (FLIP), and thus enhanced the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin and agonistic anti-tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor antibodies.

CONCLUSION: Inhibition of HSP90 function induces cell death and enhances the activity of chemotherapy and anti-tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand death receptor antibodies, suggesting that targeting HSP90 function might be of therapeutic value in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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