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Enterobacter endocarditis.

Endocarditis due to Enterobacter species is very rare. We recently cared for a patient who developed E. cloacae endocarditis following mitral valve replacement with a porcine heterograft, and was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy alone. A review of the literature disclosed an additional 17 well-described cases of enterobacter endocarditis. Two-thirds of the patients had underlying cardiac disease. The mitral valve was most frequently involved (10/16 cases) with 4 of the patients having concomitant aortic valve involvement. The overall mortality rate was 44.4%. Antibiotic therapy of enterobacter endocarditis should consist of the combination of a beta-lactam antibiotic and an aminoglycoside with careful monitoring of blood cultures to assure the adequacy of therapy. Resistance of enterobacter to previously susceptible antibiotics may occur during therapy due to induction of a chromosomally-mediated beta-lactamase, necessitating a change in antimicrobial therapy. Valvular surgery is indicated for patients failing medical management.

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