A new biodegradable polyester elastomer for cartilage tissue engineering

Yong Kang, Jian Yang, Sadiya Khan, Lucas Anissian, Guillermo A Ameer
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A 2006, 77 (2): 331-9
The objective of this study is to assess whether a new biodegradable elastomer, poly(1,8-octanediol citrate) (POC), would be a suitable material to engineer elastomeric scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Porous POC scaffolds were prepared via the salt-leaching method and initially assessed for their ability to rapidly recover from compressive deformation (% recovery ratio). Controls consisted of scaffolds made from other materials commonly used in cartilage tissue engineering, including 2% agarose, 4% alginate, non woven poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) meshes, and non woven poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) meshes. Articular chondrocytes from bovine knee were isolated and seeded onto porous disk-shaped POC scaffolds, which were subsequently cultured in vitro for up to 28 days. POC scaffolds completely recover from compressive deformation, and the stress-strain curve is typical of an elastomer (recovery ratio>98%). Agarose gel (2%) scaffolds broke during the compression test. The recovery ratio of 4% alginate gel scaffolds, PLLA, and PGA were 72, 85, and 88%, respectively. The Young's modulus of POC-chondrocyte constructs and cell-free POC scaffolds cultured for 28 days were 12.02+/-2.26 kPa and 3.27+/-0.72 kPa, respectively. After 28 days of culture, the recovery ratio of POC-chondrocyte constructs and cell-free POC scaffolds were 93% and 99%, respectively. The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen content at day 28 was 36% and 26% of that found in bovine knee cartilage explants. Histology/immunohistochemistry evaluations confirm that chondrocytes were able to attach to the pore walls within the scaffold, maintain cell phenotype, and form a cartilaginous tissue during the 28 days of culture.

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