Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Intranasal steroids and oral leukotriene modifier therapy in residual sleep-disordered breathing after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children.

Pediatrics 2006 January
OBJECTIVE: Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) is the primary therapeutic approach for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children. However, residual mild SDB will be found in more than one third of these patients after T&A. We hypothesized that combined therapy with the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast and intranasal budesonide would result in normalization of residual SDB after T&A.

METHODS: During the period of October 2002 to February 2005, children who underwent T&A for SDB underwent a routine postoperative (second) overnight polysomnographic evaluation (PSG) 10 to 14 weeks after T&A surgery. In children with residual apnea hypopnea index (AHI) >1 and <5/hour of total sleep time (TST), treatment with montelukast and intranasal budesonide aqueous solution was administered for a period of 12 weeks (M/B group), at which time a third PSG was performed. Children who had residual SDB and did not receive M/B therapy from their treating physicians were recruited as control subjects.

RESULTS: Twenty-two children received M/B, and 14 children served as control subjects. Mean age, gender distribution, ethnicity, and BMI were similar in the 2 treatment groups. The mean AHI at the second PSG was 3.9 +/- 1.2/hour of TST and 3.6 +/- 1.4/hour of TST in M/B-treated and control patients, respectively. Similar nadir arterial oxygen saturation (87.3 +/- 1.2%) and respiratory arousal index (4.6 +/- 0.7/hour of TST) were recorded for both groups. However, the M/B group demonstrated significant improvements in AHI (0.3 +/- 0.3/hour of TST), in nadir arterial oxygen saturation (92.5 +/- 3.0%), and in respiratory arousal index (0.8 +/- 0.7/hour of TST) on the third PSG, whereas no significant changes occurred over time in control subjects.

CONCLUSIONS: Combined anti-inflammatory therapy that consists of oral montelukast and intranasal budesonide effectively improves and/or normalizes respiratory and sleep disturbances in children with residual SDB after T&A.

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