Pregnancies and live births after trophectoderm biopsy and preimplantation genetic testing of human blastocysts

Steven J McArthur, Don Leigh, James T Marshall, Kylie A de Boer, Robert P S Jansen
Fertility and Sterility 2005, 84 (6): 1628-36

OBJECTIVE: To compare multiple-cell trophectoderm biopsy for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) from day-5 blastocysts with previously published experience with day-3 cleavage-stage embryos.

DESIGN: Retrospective review of laboratory and clinical experience.

SETTING: Sydney IVF, a private clinic in Australia.

PATIENT(S): Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) patients age < 44 years with at least one IVF blastocyst suitable for biopsy, recruited from January 2002 through August 2004.

INTERVENTION(S): Biopsy of trophectoderm from blastocysts on day 5 or 6, with same-day PGD for mutation testing, translocation testing, aneuploidy screening or sex selection. Spare, normal biopsied blastocysts were cryostored for possible later transfer.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Fetal heart-positive pregnancy rate and accumulating live birth rate after adding results from biopsied fresh and frozen blastocysts for particular couples.

RESULT(S): In 231 started PGD treatment cycles, unambiguous results were obtained from 974 of 1,050 biopsied blastocysts (93%); all blastocysts survived the biopsy procedure by reconstitution of their blastocele. One hundred nineteen women (median age, 36 years) have had 127 blastocysts transferred fresh (fetal heart-positive implantation rate, 41%). Of 146 blastocysts cryostored, 27 have been thawed (all with > 50% cell survival) and 24 transferred (implantation rate, 26%). To date, 53 pregnancies have been delivered or are ongoing, with an additional 4 clinical miscarriages (7%) and 6 subclinical miscarriages (total miscarriage rate, including biochemical pregnancies, 16%). There were no twin pregnancies.

CONCLUSION(S): With technically appropriate blastocyst culture and freezing, blastocyst biopsy and cryostorage and later transfer of biopsied blastocysts is shown to be a practical and probably preferable path to preimplantation genetic testing of embryos compared with cleavage-stage embryo biopsy, being accompanied by a high implantation rate (and hence more conducive to elective single embryo transfer) and by a low rate of twinning and miscarriage.


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