COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Effect of protein and energy sources and bulk density of diets on growth performance of chicks

J L Shelton, D W Dean, L L Southern, T D Bidner
Poultry Science 2005, 84 (10): 1547-54
16335123
Four completely randomized designed experiments (EXP) were conducted to determine the effect of energy, amino acid (AA) levels, and bulk density of diets on growth performance of chicks fed diets containing corn (C) or cornstarch:dextrose (CD) as energy sources and soybean meal (SBM) or soy protein isolate (SPI) as protein sources. The chicks were fed C-SBM diets 6 to 8 d posthatching before allotment to treatment, and the assay periods ranged from 7 to 14 d. Initial weights were 86, 93, 94, and 71 g in EXP 1 to 4, respectively. Treatments were replicated 6 to 8 times with 4, 5, or 6 chicks per replicate. In EXP 1, the treatments were 1) C-SBM (1.26% Lys and 3,200 kcal of ME/kg); 2) CD-SPI (1.26% Lys and 3,460 kcal of ME/kg); 3) CD-SPI (1.36% Lys and 3,460 kcal of ME/kg); and 4) CD-SPI (1.26% Lys and 3,200 kcal of ME/kg). The AA in all diets were increased in proportion to Lys. In EXP 2, chicks were fed C or CD as the energy source and SBM or SPI as the protein source in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. In EXP 3, the treatments were 1) C-SBM (1.26% Lys and 3,200 kcal of ME/kg); 2) CD-SPI (1.26% Lys and 3,200 kcal of ME/kg); 3) Diet 1 limit-fed to chicks consuming 90% of Diet 2; 4) Diet 2 limit-fed to chicks consuming 90% of Diet 2. In EXP 4, Diets 1 and 2 were the same as Diets 1 and 2 in EXP 3, but fed in mash or pelleted form. In all EXP, chicks with access ad libitum to diets with SPI had decreased (P < 0.02) average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) compared with those with access ad libitum to diets with SBM. In EXP 2, feeding C- or CD-dextrose as the energy source had no effect (P > 0.05) on ADG, ADFI, or gain:feed. In EXP 3, ADG was decreased in chicks fed the diets with SPI relative to those fed diets with SBM, but the decrease was much greater in chicks that had access ad libitum to feed (protein source x feed intake, P < 0.01) than in those limit-fed to the same feed intake. In EXP 4, ADG, ADFI, and gain:feed were decreased (P < 0.01) in chicks fed diets with SPI as the protein source. Pelleting increased (P < 0.01) ADG, ADFI, and gain:feed regardless of protein source, but the increase was much greater in chicks fed the diets with SPI (protein source x feed form, P < 0.01). Results from these EXP indicate that diets with SPI compared with SBM do not result in maximum growth performance in commercial broilers, and the problem may be due somewhat to nutrient deficiency but more to the physical form of the diet.

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