Submucosal reconstructive hemorrhoidectomy (Parks' operation): a 20-year experience

G Rosa, P Lolli, D Piccinelli, L Vicenzi, A Ballarin, S Bonomo, F Mazzola
Techniques in Coloproctology 2005, 9 (3): 209-14; discussion 214-5

BACKGROUND: Submucosal reconstructive hemorrhoidectomy has never been a popular operation due to its difficulty and duration, the amount of blood loss, and the risk of incontinence. The main indication for hemorrhoidectomy according to Parks is fourth-degree hemorrhoids with prolapse of the dentate line outside the anus and with simultaneous presence of external hemorrhoids. We report our experience in the treatment of hemorrhoids using submucosal reconstructive hemorrhoidectomy according to Parks.

METHODS: A total of 640 patients (381 men and 259 women) of median age 42 years (range, 18-81) were treated between 1983 and 2002; 80% of patients had fourth-degree, 19% third-degree and 1% second- degree hemorrhoids. All patients underwent rectosigmoidoscopic examination before surgery; patients over 35 years of age or with a suspected inflammatory or neoplastic disease underwent colonoscopy or barium enema. All patients underwent anorectal manometry before operation, to measure anal resting pressure, maximal squeeze and sphincter length, with the purpose of determining if an internal sphincterotomy was also necessary (in case of high anal resting tone). One-third of the patients also had an internal sphincterotomy to correct anal hypertonia.

RESULTS: Postoperative bleeding occurred in 19 patients (2.9%), 0.9% requiring a reintervention. Severe pain was reported by 9 patients (1.4%); fecal impaction occurred in 3 cases (0.5%) and suture disruption in 2 patients (0.3%). In 74 patients (11.6%), bladder catheterization was needed due to urinary retention. Of 550 patients who had a minimum follow-up of 3 years and were sent a postal questionnaire, 374 patients responded, with a median 7.3-year follow- up; 176 patients (32%) were lost to follow-up. Eleven patients (2.9% of 374 cases) reported pain during defecation, 6 (1.6%) developed skin tags or recurrence, 3 (0.8%) reported gas incontinence, 2 (0.5%) developed anal fistula and 1 (0.3%) had anal stricture.

CONCLUSIONS: Submucosal reconstructive hemorrhoidectomy according to Parks still represents a good choice for the treatment of high-degree hemorrhoids with prolapse of the dentate line outside the anus and external circumferential hemorrhoids.

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