[A prospective study of risk factors in pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism]

Hui-xia Yang, Mei-hua Zhang, Wei-jie Sun, Yi Zhao
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi 2005, 40 (11): 725-8

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT).

METHODS: A prospective case-control study was performed in 85 women with GDM, 63 cases with GIGT and 125 cases as control recruited from Feb 2004 to Aug 2004 in Peking University First Hospital. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify risk factors of GDM and GIGT.

RESULTS: (1) The mean age, and body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and larger maternal weight gains during pregnancy were significantly different between GDM/GIGT and control group (P < 0.05). (2) More intakes of fruits and carbohydrate per day increased the incidence of GDM and GIGT (P < 0.05). (3) There was a higher proportion of women with family history of diabetes among the GDM (42.2%) and GIGT (36.5%) compared with control group (19.2%). Irregular menses (16.5%, 23.8%), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (5.9%, 3.2%) were more prevalent in the GDM, GIGT groups versus control subjects (6.4%, 0). The incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) was significantly higher in pregnant women with GDM and GIGT (15.3% and 17.4%) than in control group (7.2%). (4) Multivariate logistic regression showed that age, irregular menses, BMI before pregnancy, history of spontaneous abortion, educational level and VVC all were independent factors for GDM or GIGT.

CONCLUSIONS: Maternal age, irregular menses, obesity before gestation, rapid weight gains during pregnancy, history of spontaneous abortion as well as VVC are independent risk factors for GDM or GIGT. PCOS and family history of diabetes increase the incidence of GDM and GIGT but these are not independent risk factors for GDM and GIGT.

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