NOD2/CARD15 mediates induction of the antimicrobial peptide human beta-defensin-2

Eske Voss, Jan Wehkamp, Kai Wehkamp, Eduard F Stange, Jens M Schröder, Jürgen Harder
Journal of Biological Chemistry 2006 January 27, 281 (4): 2005-11
Production of inducible antimicrobial peptides offers a first and rapid defense response of epithelial cells against invading microbes. Human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide induced in various epithelia upon extracellular as well as intracellular bacterial challenge. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 2 (NOD2/CARD15) is a cytosolic protein involved in intracellular recognition of microbes by sensing peptidoglycan fragments (e.g. muramyl dipeptide). We used luciferase as a reporter gene for a 2.3-kb hBD-2 promoter to test the hypothesis that NOD2 mediates the induction of hBD-2. Activation of NOD2 in NOD2-overexpressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells through its ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP) induced hBD-2 expression. In contrast, overexpression of NOD2 containing the 3020insC frame-shift mutation, the most frequent NOD2 variant associated with Crohn disease, resulted in defective induction of hBD-2 through MDP. Luciferase gene reporter analyses and site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that functional binding sites for NF-kappaB and AP-1 in the hBD-2 promoter are required for NOD2-mediated induction of hBD-2 through MDP. Moreover, the NF-kappaB inhibitor Helenalin as well as a super-repressor form of the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaB strongly inhibited NOD2-mediated hBD-2 promoter activation. Expression of NOD2 was detected in primary keratinocytes, and stimulation of these cells with MDP induced hBD-2 peptide release. In contrast, small interference RNA-mediated down-regulation of NOD2 expression in primary keratinocytes resulted in a defective induction of hBD-2 upon MDP treatment. Together, these data suggest that NOD2 serves as an intracellular pattern recognition receptor to enhance host defense by inducing the production of antimicrobial peptides such as hBD-2.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"