Lupus nephritis and pregnancy

D K Packham, S S Lam, K Nicholls, K F Fairley, P S Kincaid-Smith
Quarterly Journal of Medicine 1992, 83 (300): 315-24
Sixty-four pregnancies in 41 women with biopsy proven lupus nephritis between 1965 and 1991 were analysed to record fetal and maternal outcome and identify risk factors for poor outcome. Of 65 fetuses, 22 (34 per cent) were lost (including therapeutic abortions), 19 (30 per cent) were live born but premature (less than or equal to 36 weeks gestation) and 24 (37 per cent) were term. Fetal loss after 20 weeks gestation was 19 per cent. Twelve per cent of 25 fetuses whose birthweight was recorded were small for gestational age. Maternal renal function deteriorated in 19 per cent of pregnancies but was irreversible post-partum in only one woman (2 per cent). Hypertension was recorded in 44 per cent of pregnancies, developed early (less than or equal to 32 weeks gestation) in 28 per cent and was severe in 13 per cent. Treated hypertension predated 17 per cent of pregnancies and in 6 per cent (included in the overall incidence of hypertension) exacerbation occurred during pregnancy despite continued anti-hypertensive medication. Nine women (22 per cent) who developed de novo hypertension in pregnancy had permanent hypertension post-partum. Increased proteinuria was recorded in 48 per cent of pregnancies and was irreversible post partum in 5 per cent. Comparison of pregnancies occurring before or after diagnosis was made by renal biopsy failed to show any significant difference in fetal outcome. Pregnancies occurring after the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis were associated with a significantly lower incidence of maternal hypertension, early hypertension, severe hypertension and increased proteinuria. The presence of the circulating lupus anticoagulant was clearly associated with a significantly high fetal loss rate although the incidence of maternal complications did not differ significantly between mothers positive or negative for lupus anticoagulant.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"