Prevalence and associated factors for temporomandibular disorders in a group of Mexican adolescents and youth adults

Juan Fernando Casanova-Rosado, Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís, Ana Alicia Vallejos-Sánchez, Alejandro José Casanova-Rosado, Bernardo Hernández-Prado, Leticia Avila-Burgos
Clinical Oral Investigations 2006, 10 (1): 42-9
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a university sample of Campeche, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 506 subjects aged 14-25 years. The subjects were requested to answer questionnaires concerning sociodemographic variables, history of stress, lifestyle, and anxiety. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) was used as TMD diagnostic system by four examiners capacitated and standardized. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression in STATA. The results showed that 46.1% of the subjects exhibited some grade of TMD. Logistic regression analysis with TMD as the dependent variable identified sex (women odds ratio [OR]=1.7), bruxism (OR=1.5), anxiety (OR=1.6), unilateral chewing (OR=1.5), and an interaction between number of tooth loss and stress as the most significant associated variables, thus (1) the effect of having high levels of stress in the group of subjects without tooth loss (OR=1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.7-1.8) and (2) the effect of having high levels of stress in the group of subjects with at least one tooth lost (OR=2.4; 95% CI=1.01-5.9). The variables associated with diagnosis of pain were principally psychosocial (stress and anxiety), whereas for the non-pain diagnosis group, the variables were clinical, such as bruxism, chewing site preference, and restorations in mouth. We found associations among variables that were similar to findings in other studies, such as bruxism, tooth loss, stress, and anxiety. The final model explains that the effect of stress on TMD depends of the tooth loss, controlling for sex, bruxism, unilateral chewing, and anxiety. Finally, it can be concluded that the variables associated with pain and non-pain diagnosis were of distinct nature.

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