JOURNAL ARTICLE

Kinetic analysis of Smad nucleocytoplasmic shuttling reveals a mechanism for transforming growth factor beta-dependent nuclear accumulation of Smads

Bernhard Schmierer, Caroline S Hill
Molecular and Cellular Biology 2005, 25 (22): 9845-58
16260601
Upon transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) stimulation, Smads accumulate in the nucleus, where they regulate gene expression. Using fluorescence perturbation experiments on Smad2 and Smad4 fused to either enhanced green fluorescent protein or photoactivatable green fluorescent protein, we have studied the kinetics of Smad nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in a quantitative manner in vivo. We have obtained rate constants for import and export of Smad2 and show that the cytoplasmic localization of Smad2 in uninduced cells reflects its nuclear export being more rapid than import. We find that TGF-beta-induced nuclear accumulation of Smad2 is caused by a pronounced drop in the export rate of Smad2 from the nucleus, which is associated with a strong decrease in nuclear mobility of Smad2 and Smad4. TGF-beta-induced nuclear accumulation involves neither a release from cytoplasmic retention nor an increase in Smad2 import rate. Hence, TGF-beta-dependent nuclear accumulation of Smad2 is caused exclusively by selective nuclear trapping of phosphorylated, complexed Smad2. The proposed mechanism reconciles signal-dependent nuclear accumulation of Smad2 with its continuous nucleocytoplasmic cycling properties.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
16260601
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"