Regulation of mesenchymal stem cell and chondrocyte differentiation by MIA

G Tscheudschilsuren, A K Bosserhoff, J Schlegel, D Vollmer, A Anton, V Alt, R Schnettler, J Brandt, G Proetzel
Experimental Cell Research 2006 January 1, 312 (1): 63-72
Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA), also referred to as cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein (CD-RAP), an 11-kDa secreted protein, is mainly expressed in cartilaginous tissue during embryogenesis and adulthood. Currently, the function of MIA in cartilage tissue is not understood. Here, we describe that MIA acts as a chemotactic factor on the mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2, stimulating cell migration significantly at concentrations from 0.24 to 240 ng/ml, while inhibiting cell migration at higher doses of 2.4 microg/ml. When analyzing the role of MIA during differentiation processes, we show that MIA by itself is not capable to induce the differentiation of murine or human mesenchymal stem cells. However, MIA influences the action of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 3 during mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, supporting the chondrogenic phenotype while inhibiting osteogenic differentiation. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the up-regulation of the cartilage markers MIA, collagen type II and aggrecan in human mesenchymal stem cell (HMSC) cultures differentiated in the presence of MIA and TGF-beta 3 or BMP-2 when compared to HMSC cultures differentiated in the presence of TGF-beta 3 or BMP-2 alone. Further, MIA down-regulates gene expression of osteopontin and osteocalcin in BMP-2 treated HMSC cultures inhibiting the osteogenic potential of BMP-2. In the case of human primary chondrocytes MIA stimulates extracellular matrix deposition, increasing the glycosaminoglycan content. Therefore, we postulate that MIA is an important regulator during chondrogenic differentiation and maintenance of cartilage.

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