Prevention of preeclampsia with low-dose aspirin — a systematic review and meta-analysis of the main randomized controlled trials

Rodrigo Ruano, Rosana S Fontes, Marcelo Zugaib
Clinics 2005, 60 (5): 407-14
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose aspirin in the prevention of preeclampsia in low-risk and high-risk women. We identified randomized clinical trials of the use of low-dose aspirin to prevent preeclampsia through the PUBMED search engine, and through the Cochran Library database. Twenty-two studies met our inclusion criteria, and were divided according to the studied population into 2 groups: trials with women at low risk for preeclampsia and trials with women at high risk. Effects were measured through the incidence of preeclampsia in women taking either placebo or aspirin, in studies where the relative risks and the 95% confidence intervals were calculated for both groups. A total of 33,598 women were studied, comprising 5 trials with 16,700 women at low-risk and 17 trials including 16,898 women at high risk. The incidence of preeclampsia was 3.75% (626/17,700), in the low-risk group, 9.01% (1,524/16,898) in the high-risk group, and 6.40% (2,150/33,598) overall. Low-dose aspirin had no statistically significantly effect on the incidence of preeclampsia in the low-risk group (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.81-1.11), but had a small beneficial effect in the high-risk group (RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79-0.96). Therefore, low-dose aspirin is mildly beneficial in terms of reducing the incidence of preeclampsia in women at high risk of developing preeclampsia.

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