N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide inhibits invasion, suppresses osteoclastogenesis, and potentiates apoptosis through down-regulation of I(kappa)B(alpha) kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated gene products

Shishir Shishodia, Angelica M Gutierrez, Reuben Lotan, Bharat B Aggarwal
Cancer Research 2005 October 15, 65 (20): 9555-65
N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide [4-HPR], a synthetic retinoid, has been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastasis by a mechanism that is not fully understood. Because the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has also been shown to regulate proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells, we postulated that 4-HPR modulates the activity of NF-kappaB. To test this postulate, we examined the effect of this retinoid on NF-kappaB and NF-kappaB-regulated gene products. We found that 4-HPR potentiated the apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and chemotherapeutic agents, suppressed TNF-induced invasion, and inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, all of which are known to require NF-kappaB activation. We found that 4-HPR suppressed both inducible and constitutive NF-kappaB activation without interfering with the direct DNA binding of NF-kappaB. 4-HPR was found to be synergistic with Velcade, a proteasome inhibitor. Further studies showed that 4-HPR blocked the phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha through the inhibition of activation of IkappaBalpha kinase (IKK), and this led to suppression of the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65. 4-HPR also inhibited TNF-induced Akt activation linked with IKK activation. NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression was also suppressed by 4-HPR, as was NF-kappaB reporter activity induced by TNFR1, TRADD, TRAF2, NIK, and IKK but not that induced by p65 transfection. The expression of NF-kappaB-regulated gene products involved in antiapoptosis (IAP1, Bfl-1/A1, Bcl-2, cFLIP, and TRAF1), proliferation (cyclin D1 and c-Myc), and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclooxygenase-2, and matrix metalloproteinase-9) were also down-regulated by 4-HPR. This correlated with potentiation of apoptosis induced by TNF and chemotherapeutic agents.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"