Left ventricular epicardial activation increases transmural dispersion of repolarization in healthy, long QT, and dilated cardiomyopathy dogs

Rong Bai, Jiagao Lü, Jun Pu, Nian Liu, Qiang Zhou, Yanfei Ruan, Huiyan Niu, Cuntai Zhang, Lin Wang, Ruth Kam
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE 2005, 28 (10): 1098-106

BACKGROUND: Benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are well established. However, less is understood concerning its effects on myocardial repolarization and the potential proarrhythmic risk.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Healthy dogs (n = 8) were compared to a long QT interval (LQT) model (n = 8, induced by cesium chloride, CsCl) and a dilated cardiomyopathy with congestive heart failure (DCM-CHF, induced by rapid ventricular pacing, n = 5). Monophasic action potential (MAP) recordings were obtained from the subendocardium, midmyocardium, subepicardium, and the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) was calculated. The QT interval and the interval from the peak to the end of the T wave (T(p-e)) were measured. All these characteristics were compared during left ventricular epicardial (LV-Epi), right ventricular endocardial (RV-Endo), and biventricular (Bi-V) pacing. In healthy dogs, TDR prolonged to 37.54 ms for Bi-V pacing and to 47.16 ms for LV-Epi pacing as compared to 26.75 ms for RV-Endo pacing (P < 0.001), which was parallel to an augmentation in T(p-e) interval (Bi-V pacing, 64.29 ms; LV-Epi pacing, 57.89 ms; RV-Endo pacing, 50.29 ms; P < 0.01). During CsCl exposure, Bi-V and LV-Epi pacing prolonged MAPD, TDR, and T(p-e) interval as compared to RV-Endo pacing. The midmyocardial MAPD (276.30 ms vs 257.35 ms, P < 0.0001) and TDR (33.80 ms vs 27.58 ms, P=0.002) were significantly longer in DCM-CHF dogs than those in healthy dogs. LV-Epi and Bi-V pacing further prolonged the MAPD and TDR in this model.

CONCLUSIONS: LV-Epi and Bi-V pacing result in prolongation of ventricular repolarization time, and increase of TDR accounted for a parallel augmentation of the T(p-e) interval, which provides evidence that T(p-e) interval accurately represents TDR. These effects are magnified in the LQT and DCM-CHF canine models in addition to their intrinsic transmural heterogeneity in the intact heart. This mechanism may contribute to the development of malignant ventricular arrhythmias, such as torsades de pointes (TdP) in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients treated with CRT.

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