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Cesarean section, gestational age, and transient tachypnea of the newborn: timing is the key.

The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors and to characterize infants with transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). A total of 67 newborns with TTN, born at gestational age (GA)>or=35 weeks, were studied. Newborns delivered before and after each study case served as controls. Mean GA was lower and cesarean section (CS) rate was higher in the TTN group (38.2+/-2.3 versus 39.5+/-1.4 weeks, p<0.001; 50.7% versus 22.4%, p<0.001). GA<38 weeks was found to be associated with increased risk for TTN in infants delivered by elective CS. TTN was associated with significant morbidities and longer hospital stay (7.2+/-5.6 versus 2.9+/-1.4 days; p<0.001). Delivery by CS and younger GA are risk factors for TTN. Although TTN is a self-limited disease, it is associated with significant morbidities. Scheduling elective CS at GA of not less than 38 weeks may decrease the frequency of TTN.

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