JOURNAL ARTICLE
MULTICENTER STUDY

A phase I/II trial to evaluate three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy confined to the region of the lumpectomy cavity for Stage I/II breast carcinoma: initial report of feasibility and reproducibility of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Study 0319

Frank Vicini, Kathryn Winter, William Straube, John Wong, Helen Pass, Rachel Rabinovitch, Susan Chafe, Douglas Arthur, Ivy Petersen, Beryl McCormick
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2005 December 1, 63 (5): 1531-7
16198508

BACKGROUND: This prospective study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Study 0319) examines the use of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation. Reproducibility, as measured by technical feasibility, was the primary end point with the goal of demonstrating whether the technique is widely applicable in a multicenter setting before a Phase III trial is undertaken.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: This study was designed such that if fewer than 5 cases out of the first 42 patients evaluable were scored as unacceptable, the treatment would be considered reproducible. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85 Gy/fraction delivered twice daily. The clinical target volume included the lumpectomy cavity plus a 10-15-mm margin bounded by 5 mm within the skin surface and the lung-chest wall interface. The planning target volume (PTV) included the clinical target volume plus a 10-mm margin. Treatment plans were judged as follows: (1) No variations (total coverage), 95% isodose surface covers 100% of the PTV and all specified critical normal tissue dose-volume histogram (DVH) limits met. (2) Minor variation (marginal coverage), 95% isodose surface covers between > or = 95% and <100% of the PTV. No portion of PTV receives <93% of prescription (isocenter) dose. All specified critical normal tissue DVH limits fall within 5% of the guidelines. (3) Major variation (miss), 95% isodose surface covers <95% of the PTV. Portion of PTV receives <93% of prescription isocenter dose. Any critical normal tissue DVH limit exceeds 5% of the specified value.

RESULTS: A total of 58 patients were enrolled on this study between 8/15/03 and 4/30/04, 5 of whom were ineligible or did not receive protocol treatment. Two additional patients were excluded, one because the on-study form was not submitted, and the other because no treatment planning material was submitted. This primary end point analysis is based on the first 42 (out of 51) evaluable patients, which were accrued from 17 different institutions (31 centers were credentialed for case enrollment, but because of rapid accrual, not all centers were able to submit cases before trial closure). These 42 patients had the following characteristics: median age was 61 years; 48% had a maximum tumor dimension of <1 cm; 86% had invasive ductal carcinoma; 64% were postmenopausal; the location of tumor was upper outer for 40% and upper central for 21%; 79% had no chemotherapy, and 64% had no hormonal therapy. There were 4 cases with major variations (all 4 related to normal tissue DVHs exceeding 5% of the specified limit). A total of 32 cases with minor variations in treatment plans were detected (16 related to normal tissue DVHs exceeding the specified limits [by < or = 5%], 6 related to suboptimal coverage of the PTV, and 10 related to both). There were 6 cases with no variations. Of the 51 total evaluable patients, 1 additional major variation was noted (PTV receiving <93% of the prescription dose). An additional 5 cases with minor variations in treatment plans were detected (3 related to normal tissue DVHs exceeding the specified limits [by < or = 5%], 1 related to suboptimal coverage of the PTV, and 1 related to both). There were 3 more cases with no variations.

CONCLUSION: Accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy was shown in this preliminary analysis of the first 42 evaluable patients to be technically feasible and reproducible in a multi-institutional trial using exceptionally strict dosimetric criteria.

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