Application of a five-step message development model for food safety education materials targeting people with HIV/AIDS

Emily W Hoffman, Verna Bergmann, Jill Armstrong Shultz, Patricia Kendall, Lydia C Medeiros, Virginia N Hillers
Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2005, 105 (10): 1597-604
Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome have an increased risk of contracting foodborne illnesses and need to take special precautions regarding food safety. We implemented a five-step model to assess the needs of people with HIV, develop education materials targeted to their needs, and evaluate acceptance of the materials. Needs assessment focus groups (n=8) with HIV-infected people (n=65) and interviews with health care providers (n=18) were conducted to determine motivators and barriers to adopting food safety recommendations. Education materials were developed using needs assessment data, literature on foodborne illnesses, and the Health Belief Model. Acceptability of materials was evaluated by focus groups (n=4) with HIV-infected people (n=32) and a survey of health care providers (n=25). Needs assessment focus group participants expressed resistance to and confusion about many recommendations. Prototype materials were designed to address barriers and motivators. HIV-infected people who reviewed the prototype materials in evaluation focus groups expressed positive attitudes about the materials, and most indicated willingness to follow recommendations. Health care providers were interested in distributing the education materials to their clients. Carefully listening to HIV-infected people and their health care providers, as well as detailed investigation of the literature on foodborne illnesses, contributed to acceptance of the education materials.

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