The detection and quantification of highly reactive oxygen species using the novel HPF fluorescence probe in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia

Shinichiro Tomizawa, Hideaki Imai, Shota Tsukada, Tatsuya Simizu, Fumiaki Honda, Mitsunobu Nakamura, Tetsuo Nagano, Yasuteru Urano, Yuki Matsuoka, Noboru Fukasaku, Nobuhito Saito
Neuroscience Research 2005, 53 (3): 304-13
A novel fluorescence probe, 2-[6-(4'-hydroxy) phenoxy-3H-xanthen-3-on-9-yl] benzoic acid (HPF) was used to investigate the generation of highly reactive oxygen species (hROS) under ischemia both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study, HT 22 cells were used to demonstrate that was predominantly detected in the cytoplasm, which coincides with the location of the mitochondria and then its HPF fluorescence gradually increased from 6 to 24 h due to glutamate induced oxidative stress. In the in vivo study, the permanent and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in rats. Brain slices were incubated in an artificial medium containing HPF. The area of enhanced HPF fluorescence existed in both the ischemic core and the peri-infarct area at 4h after MCAO in both permanent and transient MCAO models. The area extended beyond the boundary of the ischemic damage into biochemically viable tissue. The enhanced fluorescent intensity following transient MCAO was higher than that observed in the permanent MCAO model. Hydroxyl radical scavenger, MCI-186 significantly suppressed the enhanced fluorescence intensity. This study demonstrated that HPF has a high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of hROS in focal cerebral ischemia as well as in a cellular model of oxidative stress.

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