JOURNAL ARTICLE

Bone morphogenetic protein-6 promotes osteoblastic prostate cancer bone metastases through a dual mechanism

Jinlu Dai, Jill Keller, Jian Zhang, Yi Lu, Zhi Yao, Evan T Keller
Cancer Research 2005 September 15, 65 (18): 8274-85
16166304
Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone where it forms osteoblastic lesions through unknown mechanisms. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are mediators of skeletal formation. Prostate cancer produces a variety of BMPs, including BMP-6. We tested the hypothesis that BMP-6 contributes to prostate cancer-induced osteosclerosis at bone metastatic sites. Prostate cancer cells and clinical tissues produced BMP-6 that increased with aggressiveness of the tumor. Prostate cancer-conditioned medium induced SMAD phosphorylation in the preosteoblast MC3T3 cells, and phosphorylation was diminished by anti-BMP-6 antibody. Prostate cancer-conditioned medium induced mineralization of MC3T3 cells, which was blocked by both the BMP inhibitor noggin and anti-BMP-6. Human fetal bones were implanted in severe combined immunodeficient mice and after 4 weeks, LuCaP 23.1 prostate cancer cells were injected both s.c. and into the bone implants. Anti-BMP-6 or isotype antibody administration was then initiated. Anti-BMP-6 reduced LuCaP 23.1-induced osteoblastic activity, but had no effect on its osteolytic activity. This was associated with increased osteoblast numbers and osteoblast activity based on bone histomorphometric evaluation. As endothelin-1 has been implicated in bone metastases, we measured serum endothelin-1 levels but found they were not different among the treatment groups. In addition to decreased bone production, anti-BMP-6 reduced intraosseous, but not s.c., tumor size. We found that BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, and BMP-7 had no direct effect on prostate cancer cell growth, but BMP-2 and BMP-6 increased the in vitro invasive ability of prostate cancer cell. These data show that prostate cancer promotes osteoblastic activity through BMP-6 and that, in addition to its bone effects, suggest that BMPs promote the ability of the prostate cancer cells to invade the bone microenvironment.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
16166304
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"