[Osteoclastogenesis through TLR/NOD signaling]

Teruhito Yamashita, Shuhua Yang, Nobuyuki Udagawa
Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine 2005, 63 (9): 1547-52
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and muramyl dipeptide (MDP) are components of microbial cell walls that cause innate immune responses and inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a receptor for LPS and transduces signals through myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), which plays essential roles in the TLR/IL-1R signaling and activates NF-kappaB and MAP kinase pathways to induce RANKL expression in osteoblasts. Osteoblasts express NOD2, an intracellular sensor for MDP, in response to LPS, IL-1 and TNF. NOD2 binds RIP2, a serine/threonine kinase which transduces NF-kappaB signaling. Thus MDP synergistically enhances osteoclast formation induced by LPS, IL-1 and TNF through RANK ligand up-regulation in osteoblasts. In summary, innate immune receptors, TLR4 and NOD2, recognize bacterial components on cell surfaces and inside cells, respectively, and these signals cross-talk to induce RANKL expression in osteoblasts, which results in enhancing osteoclast formation and function.

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