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Clinicopathologic features, treatment, and prognosis of postirradiation osteosarcoma in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer.

Laryngoscope 2005 September
OBJECTIVES: Postirradiation osteosarcoma (PIOS) arising after radiation of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is rare and seldom reported. In this article, we report its clinicopathologic features, outcome, and prognostic factors.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.

METHODS: Fifteen patients with NPC were determined to have PIOS after reviewing 426 patients with osteogenic sarcomas. Their clinical records, image and pathologic slides, and follow-up data after treatment were collected to perform analysis.

RESULTS: The incidence rate of PIOS in NPC was approximately 0.037% (15/40,719), which occupied approximately 3.5% (15/426) among all kinds of osteogenic sarcomas. The latent time of PIOS after irradiation for NPC ranged from 4 to 27 years, with a mean of 13.3 years. The location where PIOS arose included 33.3% (5/15) from maxilla, 46.7% (7/15) from mandible, and 20% (3/15) from a mixture of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Radiologically, soft tissue mass, bone destruction, and tumor new bone formation were the main characteristics. Pathologic subtypes included 53.3% (8/15) of fibroblastic osteosarcoma, 33.3% (5/15) of chondroblastic osteosarcoma, and 13.3% (2/15) of mixed type osteosarcoma. Of 15 patients with PIOS, 12 patients were treated with curative intent, and the remaining 3 patients with palliative intent. For 12 patients who had undertaken ablative surgery, 1 patient had residual tumor, and 6 patients had tumor recurrence. The survival time after treatment for all patients ranged from 7 to 41 months, with a mean of 18 months. Kaplan-Meier estimates of 1 year and 2 year survival rates were 60% and 24%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that sex and tumor bone formation are significant prognostic factors.

CONCLUSIONS: PIOS in NPC is a highly malignant disease with poorer prognosis than in other sites. Surgery combined with pre- and postoperative chemotherapy might be an effective way to improve survival.

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