Malignant transformation of ameloblastic fibroma to ameloblastic fibrosarcoma: case report and review of the literature

Kazuo Kobayashi, Ryuichi Murakami, Tohru Fujii, Akiyoshi Hirano
Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery 2005, 33 (5): 352-5

INTRODUCTION: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is a rare malignant odontogenic tumour and is regarded as the malignant counterpart of the ameloblastic fibroma. The epithelial component remains benign, but the mesenchymal component becomes malignant. The diagnosis is made by histopathology.

PATIENT: The case of a 26-year-old man who underwent curettage of an ameloblastic fibroma and died of an ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is presented, and the course of malignant transformation is analysed retrospectively.

CONCLUSION: One-third of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma cases seem to have developed from recurrent ameloblastic fibromas. Knowledge of the malignant potential in the mesenchymal spindle cells of ameloblastic fibroma will assist in determining the management of these benign tumours, and may prevent malignant transformation to ameloblastic fibrosarcoma.

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