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Impact of fluconazole prophylaxis on incidence and outcome of invasive candidiasis in a neonatal intensive care unit.

OBJECTIVES: We assessed the impact of intravenous fluconazole prophylaxis (FP) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW [<1000 g]) infants on the incidence of and outcome from invasive candidiasis (IC) in all infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

STUDY DESIGN: Beginning April 1, 2002, FP was given to ELBW infants aged < 5 days admitted to the NICU of Woman's Hospital of Texas. Infants in NICU in whom IC developed during the first 2 years of FP (FP period) were compared with those with IC during 2000-2001.

RESULTS: During 2000-2001 and the FP period, the incidence of IC in ELBW infants decreased from 7% (15 of 206) to 2% (5 of 240) (P=.01), and the IC-related mortality rate decreased from 12% (4 of 33) to 0 (0 of 40) (P=.04); the incidence of IC increased from 0.1% (4 of 2806) to 0.2% (8 of 3372) in infants of birth weight > or = 1000 g (P=.06), and no IC-related deaths occurred. During the FP period, IC developed in older infants (24 vs 12 days; P=.12) who had similar risk factors for IC.

CONCLUSION: Invasive candidiasis occurred in our NICU in spite of FP and shifted to bigger, more mature infants who had a better outcome.

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