High rates of primary Mycobacterium avium complex and Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis in the United States

Kelly A Gebo, John A Fleishman, Erin D Reilly, Richard D Moore et al.
Medical Care 2005, 43 (9): III23-30

BACKGROUND: National data from the mid-1990s demonstrated that many eligible patients with HIV infection do not receive prophylaxis for opportunistic infections (OIs) and that racial and gender disparities existed in OI prophylaxis receipt.

OBJECTIVE: We examined whether demographic disparities in use of OI prophylaxis persist in 2001 and if outpatient care is associated with OI prophylaxis utilization.

RESEARCH DESIGN: Demographic, clinical, and pharmacy utilization data were collected from 10 U.S. HIV primary care sites in the HIV Research Network.

SUBJECTS: This study consisted of adult patients (>or=18 years old) in longitudinal HIV primary care.

MEASURES: Indications for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) or Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prophylaxis were 2 or more CD4 counts less than 200 or 50 cells/mm(3) during calendar year (CY) 2001, respectively. Using multivariate logistic regression, we examined demographic and clinical characteristics associated with receipt of PCP or MAC prophylaxis and the association of outpatient utilization with appropriate OI prophylaxis.

RESULTS: Among eligible patients, 88.1% received PCP prophylaxis and 87.6% received MAC prophylaxis. Approximately 80% had 4 or more outpatient visits during CY 2001. Adjusting for care site, male gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.47), Medicare coverage (OR, 1.60), and having 4 or more outpatient visits in a year (OR, 2.34) were significantly associated with increased likelihood of PCP prophylaxis. Adjusting for care site, having 4 or more outpatient visits in a year (OR, 1.85) was associated with increased likelihood of receipt of MAC prophylaxis. There were no demographic or insurance characteristics associated with receipt of MAC prophylaxis.

CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of OI prophylaxis has increased since the mid-1990s, and previous racial and HIV risk factor disparities in receipt of OI prophylaxis have waned. Integration into the healthcare system is an important correlate of receiving OI prophylaxis.

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