JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Increasing incidence of testicular germ cell tumors among black men in the United States.

PURPOSE: There has been marked disparity in the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) among white and black men for a number of decades in the United States. Since at least the beginning of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program in 1973, incidence rates among white men have been five times higher than rates among black men. In addition, rates among white men have been increasing, whereas rates among black men have remained stable. However, a recent examination of ethnic-specific rates suggested that the incidence among black men may have begun to change in the 1990s.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: TGCT incidence data from nine registries of the SEER Program were analyzed for the years 1973 to 2001. Trends were examined separately for seminoma and nonseminoma.

RESULTS: Analyses found that the incidence of TGCT began to increase among black men between the 1988 to 1992 and 1993 to 1997 periods. Before that time, incidence among black men had decreased by 14.8%. Between 1988 to 1992 and 1998 to 2001, however, the incidence increased by 100%, with the incidence of seminoma increasing twice as much (124.4%) as the incidence of nonseminoma (64.3%). Over the 29-year time period, there was no evidence of a change in the proportion of tumors diagnosed at earlier stages among black men. In contrast, the proportion of tumors diagnosed at localized stages significantly increased among white men.

CONCLUSION: The incidence of TGCT among black men has increased since 1988 to 1992. Although the reasons for this increase are unclear, screening and earlier diagnosis of TGCT do not seem to be factors.

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