EGF stimulates proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells: involvement of Ca2+ influx and p44/42 MAPKs

Jung Sun Heo, Yun Jung Lee, Ho Jae Han
American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology 2006, 290 (1): C123-33
We examined the effect of EGF on the proliferation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and their related signal pathways. EGF increased [3H]thymidine and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. EGF stimulated the phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR). Inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase with AG-1478 or herbimycin A, inhibition of PLC with neomycin or U-73122, inhibition of PKC with bisindolylmaleimide I or staurosporine, and inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channels with nifedipine or methoxyverapamil prevented EGF-induced [3H]thymidine incorporation. PKC-alpha, -betaI, -gamma, -delta, and -zeta were translocated to the membrane and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was increased in response to EGF. Moreover, inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase, PLC, and PKC completely prevented EGF-induced increases in [Ca2+]i. EGF also increased inositol phosphate levels, which were blocked by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, EGF rapidly increased formation of H2O2, and pretreatment with antioxidant (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) inhibited EGF-induced increase of [Ca2+]i. In addition, we observed that p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation by EGF and inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase, PLC, PKC, or Ca2+ channels blocked EGF-induced phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPKs. Inhibition of p44/42 MAPKs with PD-98059 (MEK inhibitor) attenuated EGF-induced increase of [3H]thymidine incorporation. Finally, inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase, PKC, Ca2+ channels, or p44/42 MAPKs attenuated EGF-stimulated cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, and CDK4, respectively. In conclusion, EGF partially stimulates proliferation of mouse ES cells via PLC/PKC, Ca2+ influx, and p44/42 MAPK signal pathways through EGFR tyrosine kinase phosphorylation.

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