RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Successful engraftment without radiation after fludarabine-based regimen in Fanconi anemia patients undergoing genotypically identical donor hematopoietic cell transplantation.

BACKGROUND: To potentially reduce late effects of malignancy, chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), endocrinopathy, and infertility in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA) undergoing HLA-matched related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we developed a regimen using fludarabine (FLU), cyclophosphamide (CY), and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) followed by infusion of T-cell depleted (TCD) bone marrow (BM) or unmanipulated umbilical cord blood (UCB). GVHD prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine and short course methylprednisolone.

PROCEDURE: Between April 2000 and June 2003, 11 patients (10 aplastic anemia (AA), 1 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)) underwent HCT using this regimen. Stem cell sources were BM and UCB in eight and three patients, respectively.

RESULTS: All patients demonstrated primary engraftment. Median days to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 11 days (range 9-21) and 38 days (range 19-381), respectively. No patient developed GVHD after primary HCT. The patient with MDS relapsed with AML and a maternal donor recipient experienced secondary graft failure. For the nine FA patients with AA who underwent HLA-identical sibling donor HCT, the Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival and event-free survival (EFS) at 2 years are 100% and 82%, respectively, at a median follow-up of 2.9 years (range 1.9-4.8).

CONCLUSIONS: In summary, a FLU-based, non-irradiation approach is effective for FA patients with AA undergoing HLA-identical sibling donor HCT.

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