Intrathoracic pressure regulator during continuous-chest-compression advanced cardiac resuscitation improves vital organ perfusion pressures in a porcine model of cardiac arrest

Demetris Yannopoulos, Vinay M Nadkarni, Scott H McKnite, Anu Rao, Kurt Kruger, Anja Metzger, David G Benditt, Keith G Lurie
Circulation 2005 August 9, 112 (6): 803-11

BACKGROUND: A novel device, the intrathoracic pressure regulator (ITPR), combines an inspiratory impedance threshold device (ITD) with a vacuum source for the generation of controlled -10 mm Hg vacuum in the trachea during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) while allowing positive pressure ventilation. Compared with standard (STD) CPR, ITPR-CPR will enhance venous return, systemic arterial pressure, and vital organ perfusion in both porcine models of ventricular fibrillation and hypovolemic cardiac arrest.

METHODS AND RESULTS: In protocol 1, 20 pigs (weight, 30+/-0.5 kg) were randomized to STD-CPR or ITPR-CPR. After 8 minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation, CPR was performed for 6 minutes at 100 compressions per minute and positive pressure ventilation (100% O2) with a compression-to-ventilation ratio of 15:2. In protocol 2, 6 animals were bled 50% of their blood volume. After 4 minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation, interventions were performed for 2 minutes with STD-CPR and 2 minutes of ITPR-CPR. This sequence was repeated. In protocol 3, 6 animals after 8 minutes of untreated VF were treated with ITPR-CPR for 15 minutes, and arterial and venous blood gases were collected at baseline and minutes 5, 10, and 15 of CPR. A newer, leak-proof ITPR device was used. Aortic, right atrial, endotracheal pressure, intracranial pressure, and end-tidal CO2 values were measured (mm Hg); common carotid arterial flow also was measured (mL/min). Coronary perfusion pressure (diastolic; aortic minus right atrial pressure) and cerebral perfusion pressure (mean arterial minus mean intracranial pressure) were calculated. Unpaired Student t test and Friedman's repeated-measures ANOVA of ranks were used in protocols 1 and 3. A 2-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for analysis in protocol 2. Fischer's exact test was used for survival. Significance was set at P<0.05. Vital organ perfusion pressures and end-tidal CO2 were significantly improved with ITPR-CPR in both protocols. In protocol 1, 1-hour survival was 100% with ITPR-CPR and 10% with STD-CPR (P=0.001). Arterial blood pH was significantly lower and Paco2 was significantly higher with ITPR-CPR in protocol 1. Arterial oxygen saturation was 100% throughout the study in both protocols. Paco2 and Pao2 remained stable, but metabolic acidosis progressed, as expected, throughout the 15 minutes of CPR in protocol 3.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with STD-CPR, use of ITPR-CPR improved hemodynamics and short-term survival rates after cardiac arrest.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"