Prevalence and correlates of excessive daytime sleepiness in high school students in Korea

Soonjae Joo, Chol Shin, Jinkwan Kim, Hyeryeon Yi, Yongkyu Ahn, Minkyu Park, Jehyeong Kim, SangDuck Lee
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2005, 59 (4): 433-40
The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and its associations with sleep habits, sleep problems, and school performance in high school students in South Korea. A total of 3871 students (2703 boys and 1168 girls with a mean age of 16.8 years and 16.9 years, respectively) aged 15-18 years in the 11th grade of high school completed a questionnaire that contained items about individual sociodemographic characteristics, sleep habits, and sleep-related problems. The overall prevalence of EDS was 15.9% (14.9% for boys and 18.2% for girls). Mean reported total sleep time was similar in EDS and non-EDS (6.4 +/- 1.6 and 6.4 +/- 1.3 h/day, respectively). The increased risk of EDS was related to perceived sleep insufficiency (P < 0.001), teeth grinding > or = 4 days/week (P < 0.001), witnessed apnea > or = 1-3 days/week (P < 0.01), nightmares > or = 4 days/week (P < 0.05), low school performance (P < 0.01), and two or more insomnia symptoms (P < 0.05). Students with low school performance had a 60% excess in the odds of EDS compared to those whose school performance was high. These findings suggest that EDS is associated with multiple sleep-related factors in adolescents. Whether interventions to modify associated correlates can alter EDS warrants consideration, especially because it may also improve academic performance in high school students.

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