Vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein

Shuetsu Fukushi, Tetsuya Mizutani, Masayuki Saijo, Shutoku Matsuyama, Naoko Miyajima, Fumihiro Taguchi, Shigeyuki Itamura, Ichiro Kurane, Shigeru Morikawa
Journal of General Virology 2005, 86 (Pt 8): 2269-2274
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) contains a single spike (S) protein, which binds to its receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), induces membrane fusion and serves as a neutralizing antigen. A SARS-CoV-S protein-bearing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotype using the VSVDeltaG* system was generated. Partial deletion of the SARS-CoV-S protein cytoplasmic domain allowed efficient incorporation into VSV particles and led to the generation of a pseudotype (VSV-SARS-St19) at high titre. Green fluorescent protein expression was demonstrated as early as 7 h after infection of Vero E6 cells with VSV-SARS-St19. VSV-SARS-St19 was neutralized by anti-SARS-CoV antibody and soluble ACE2, and its infection was blocked by treatment of Vero E6 cells with anti-ACE2 antibody. These results indicated that VSV-SARS-St19 infection is mediated by SARS-CoV-S protein in an ACE2-dependent manner. VSV-SARS-St19 will be useful for analysing the function of SARS-CoV-S protein and for developing rapid methods of detecting neutralizing antibodies specific for SARS-CoV infection.

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