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[Lyme borreliosis. Cutaneous manifestation]

H Hofmann
Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete 2005, 56 (8): 783-95; quiz 796
16025277
Lyme borreliosis is a tick transmitted infectious disease caused by different genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In USA only one species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is prevalent, whereas in Europe at least 5 different pathogenic species could be identified. The most prevalent species are B. afzelii and B. garinii. Infection is not always causing disease. In early infection, a localized skin inflammation, called erythema migrans, occurs around the tick bite, hematogenous dissemination of Borrelia causes flu like symptoms up to meningitis and multiple erythemata migrantia on the skin. In late stage multiple organ systems can be affected, in Europe especially the skin with various forms of acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, the central and peripheral nervous system, joints and heartmuscle. Lyme borreliosis can be diagnosed by the typical history, the clinical symptoms and the elevated Borrelia specific IgM- and IgG-antibodies in serum and CSF according to the MIQ guidelines, in special cases B. burgdorferi can be cultivated or DNA detected by PCR. Therapy of choice for early infection is oral antibiotics like doxycycline, amoxicillin and cefuroxime for at least 10 days up to 21 days. Late stage infections should be treated for 3-4 weeks. Patients with neurological symptoms should be treated intravenously with ceftriaxone or penicillin G.

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