Covariation in the socioeconomic determinants of self rated health and happiness: a multivariate multilevel analysis of individuals and communities in the USA

S V Subramanian, Daniel Kim, Ichiro Kawachi
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2005, 59 (8): 664-9

OBJECTIVE: To investigate individual level determinants of self rated health and happiness, as well as the extent of community level covariation in health and happiness.

DESIGN: Multivariate multilevel regression analysis of self rated poor health and unhappiness at level 1, nested within 24 118 people at level 2, nested within 36 communities at level 3. Data were obtained from the 2000 social capital benchmark survey.

SETTING: USA communities.

PARTICIPANTS: 24 118 adults.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self reported fair/poor health; and a single item measure of subjective wellbeing.

RESULTS: Controlling for demographic markers, a strong income and education gradient was seen for self rated poor health and unhappiness, with the gradient being stronger for poor health. Community level correlations between self rated poor health and happiness were stronger (0.65) than the individual level correlations (0.16) between the two outcomes.

CONCLUSION: Poor health and unhappiness are highly positively correlated within individuals, and communities that are healthier tend to be happier and vice versa.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"