Diverse signaling pathways through the SDF-1/CXCR4 chemokine axis in prostate cancer cell lines leads to altered patterns of cytokine secretion and angiogenesis

Jianhua Wang, Jincheng Wang, Yanxi Sun, Wenying Song, Jacques E Nor, Cun Yu Wang, Russell S Taichman
Cellular Signalling 2005, 17 (12): 1578-92
The establishment of metastatic bone lesions in prostate cancer (CaP) is a process partially dependent on angiogenesis. Previously we demonstrated that the stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12)/CXCR4 chemokine axis is critical for CaP cell metastasis. In this investigation, cell lines were established in which CXCR4 expression was knocked down using siRNA technology. When CaP cells were co-transplanted with human vascular endothelial cells into SCID mice, significantly fewer human blood vessels were observed paralleling the reductions in CXCR4 levels. Likewise, the invasive behaviors of the CaP cells were inhibited in vitro. From these functional observations we explored angiogenic and signaling mechanisms generated following SDF-1 binding to CXCR4. Differential activation of the MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways that result in differential secretion IL-6, IL-8, TIMP-2 and VEGF were seen contingent on the cell type examined; VEGF and TIMP-2 expression in PC3 cells are dependent on AKT activation and ERK activation in LNCaP and LNCaP C4-2B cells leads to IL-6 or IL-8 secretion. At the same time, expression of angiostatin levels were inversely related to CXCR4 levels, and inhibited by SDF-1 stimulation. These data link the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway to changes in angiogenic cytokines by different signaling mechanisms and, suggest that the delicate equilibrium between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors may be achieved by different signal transduction pathways to regulate the angiogenic phenotype of prostate cancers. Taken together, our results provide new information regarding expression of functional CXCR4 receptor-an essential role and potential mechanism of angiogenesis upon SDF-1 stimulation.

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