JOURNAL ARTICLE

Application of the central composite design and response surface methodology to the advanced treatment of olive oil processing wastewater using Fenton's peroxidation

M Ahmadi, F Vahabzadeh, B Bonakdarpour, E Mofarrah, M Mehranian
Journal of Hazardous Materials 2005 August 31, 123 (1): 187-95
15993298
The central composite design (CCD) technique was used to study the effect of the Fenton's peroxidation on the removal of organic pollutants from olive oil mill wastewater (OMW). The ratio of hydrogen peroxide-to-Fe(II) (x1) was between 1.67 and 8.33. Fe(II) concentration was constant at 0.03 M while the H2O2 concentration was set at three levels: 0.05, 0.15 and 0.25 M. Based on the molarity ratio, the selected ratio were in the low range of Fe(II)-to-H2O2 ratio (<1). While based on the wt/wt ratio, the tested Fe(II)-to-H2O2 ratios were in the range of < or =1:5. pH (x2) was between 3 and 5. The concentration of OMW (x3) was varied between 40 and 100%. The influence of these three independent variables on the four dependent variables, i.e. COD, total phenolics (TP), color and aromaticity removal was evaluated using a second-order polynomial multiple regression model. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.902-0.998, thus ensuring a satisfactory adjustment of the second-order regression model with the experimental data. H2O2-to-Fe(II) ratio had significant effect on all the four dependent variables. The positive sign for the regression coefficient of this regressor variable indicated that the level of the pollutant removal increased with the increased levels of factor x1 from 1.67 to 8.33 and this effect was the most pronounced for TP removal. pH had also significant effect on the pollutant removal and the effect was the most noticeable for TP reduction. The negative coefficient of this variable (pH) indicated that level of the pollutant removal decreased as the pH increased from 3 to 5. The negative coefficient of the interaction between variable x1 and x2 indicated that a simultaneous increase in H2O2-to-Fe(II) ratio with decrease in the pH of the reaction led to an increase in the COD, TP and color removal. Quadratic models were predicted for the response variable, i.e. pollutant removal, and the maximum model-predicted removals were 56, 100, 33 and 32% for COD, TP, color and aromaticity, respectively. Optimum conditions for this wastewater treatment was obtained based on the performance of the Fenton's peroxidation in the experiment where the H2O2-to-Fe(II) ratio was at its high level (8.33) and the pH and OMW concentration were 4 and 70%, respectively.

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