JOURNAL ARTICLE

Incidence and risk factors for side effects of spinal anesthesia

R L Carpenter, R A Caplan, D L Brown, C Stephenson, R Wu
Anesthesiology 1992, 76 (6): 906-16
1599111
We prospectively studied 952 patients to identify the incidence of hypotension (systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg), bradycardia (heart rate less than 50 beats/min), nausea, vomiting, and dysrhythmia during spinal anesthesia. Historical, clinical, and physiologic data were correlated with the incidence of these side effects by univariate and multivariate analysis. Hypotension developed in 314 patients (33%), bradycardia in 125 (13%), nausea in 175 (18%), vomiting in 65 (7%), and dysrhythmia in 20 (2%). Variables conferring increased odds of developing hypotension include peak block height greater than or equal to T5 (odds ratio 3.8, P less than 0.001), age greater than or equal to 40 yr (2.5, P less than 0.001), baseline systolic blood pressure less than 120 mmHg (2.4, P less than 0.001), combination of spinal and general anesthesia (1.9, P = 0.01), spinal puncture at or above the L2-L3 interspace (1.8, P less than 0.001), and addition of phenylephrine to the local anesthetic (1.6, P = 0.02). Variables conferring increased odds of developing bradycardia include a baseline heart rate less than 60 beats/min (odds ratio 4.9, P less than 0.001), ASA physical status classification of 1 versus 3 or 4 (3.5, P less than 0.001), current therapy with beta-adrenergic blocking drugs (2.9, P less than 0.001), and peak block height greater than or equal to T5 (1.7, P = 0.02). Variables conferring increased odds of developing nausea or vomiting include addition of phenylephrine or epinephrine to the local anesthetic (3.0-6.3, P less than or equal to 0.003), peak block height greater than or equal to T5 (odds ratio 3.9, P less than 0.001), use of procaine (2.6-4.4, P less than or equal to 0.003), baseline heart rate greater than or equal to 60 beats/min (2.3, P = 0.03), history of carsickness (2.0, P = 0.01), and development of hypotension during spinal anesthesia (1.7, P = 0.009). Our results indicate that the incidence of side effects during spinal anesthesia may be reduced by 1) minimizing peak block height; 2) using plain solutions of local anesthetics; 3) performing the spinal puncture at or below the L3-L4 interspace; and 4) avoiding the use of procaine in the subarachnoid space.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
1599111
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.