Erythromycin antagonizes the deceleration of gastric emptying by glucagon-like peptide 1 and unmasks its insulinotropic effect in healthy subjects

Juris J Meier, Guido Kemmeries, Jens J Holst, Michael A Nauck
Diabetes 2005, 54 (7): 2212-8
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been proposed to act as an incretin hormone due to its ability to enhance glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Because GLP-1 also decelerates gastric emptying, it physiologically reduces rather than augments postprandial insulin secretory responses. Therefore, we aimed to antagonize the deceleration of gastric emptying by GLP-1 to study its effects on insulin secretion after a meal. Nine healthy male volunteers (age 25 +/- 4 years, BMI 25.0 +/- 4.9 kg/m2) were studied with an infusion of GLP-1 (0.8 from -30 to 240 min) or placebo. On separate occasions, the prokinetic drugs metoclopramide (10 mg), domperidone (10 mg), cisapride (10 mg, all at -30 min per oral), or erythromycin (200 mg intravenously from -30 to -15 min) were administered in addition to GLP-1. A liquid test meal (50 g sucrose and 8% mixed amino acids in 400 ml) was administered at 0 min. Capillary and venous blood samples were drawn for the determination of glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, glucagon, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and pancreatic polypeptide (specific immunoassays). Gastric emptying was assessed by the phenol red dilution technique. Statistical analyses were performed using repeated-measures ANOVA and Duncan's post hoc test. GLP-1 significantly decelerated the velocity of gastric emptying (P < 0.001). This was completely counterbalanced by erythromycin, whereas the other prokinetic drugs used had no effect. Postprandial glucose concentrations were lowered by GLP-1 (P < 0.001 vs. placebo), but this effect was partially reversed by erythromycin (P < 0.05). Insulin secretory responses to the meal were lower during GLP-1 administration (P < 0.05 vs. placebo). However, when erythromycin was added to GLP-1, insulin concentrations were similar to those in placebo experiments. The suppression of meal-related increments in glucagon secretion by GLP-1 was reversed by erythromycin (P < 0.001). The time course of GIP secretion was delayed during GLP-1 administration (P < 0.05), but when erythromycin was added, the pattern was similar to placebo experiments. GLP-1 administration led to a reduction in pancreatic polypeptide plasma concentrations (P < 0.05). In contrast, pancreatic polypeptide levels were markedly increased by erythromycin (P < 0.001). Intravenous erythromycin counteracts the deceleration of gastric emptying caused by GLP-1, probably by interacting with the parasympathetic nervous system (pancreatic polypeptide responses). Despite augmented rises in insulin secretion, the glucose-lowering effect of GLP-1 is markedly reduced when the deceleration of gastric emptying is antagonized, illustrating the importance of this facet of the multiple antidiabetic actions of GLP-1.


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Available on the App Store

Available on the Play Store
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"