Temporary hemodialysis catheters as a long-term vascular access in chronic hemodialysis patients

Rafael Ponikvar, Jadranka Buturović-Ponikvar
Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 2005, 9 (3): 250-3
The objective was to review our experience with temporary, precurved, jugular catheters used for long-term vascular access in chronic hemodialysis patients. Thirty chronic hemodialysis patients, 14 men and 16 women, with an average age of 65.3 +/- 13.5 years (30-90 years), treated by dialysis for 1 month to 30 years (average +/- SD, 6.3 +/- 8.1 years), had single lumen, 'temporary' precurved non-tunneled jugular catheters placed into the right jugular vein as permanent vascular access, with 4% trisodium citrate as a locking solution and mupirocin at the exit site. Hemodialysis catheters were used for vascular access on average for 9.1 +/- 6.5 months, (1-22.7 months), and for a total of 271.7 months (8151 days). Average catheter functioning time was 3.1 +/- 1.9 months (0.5-10 months). The total number of side-effects was 55 (6.7/1000 catheter days), including 26 cases of thrombosis (3.2/1000 catheter days), 9 ruptures of the catheter (1.1/1000 catheter days), 15 catheter malfunctions (1.8/1000 catheter days), 2 exit site infections (0.2/1000 catheter days), 2 bacteremias (0.2/1000 catheter days), 1 avulsion of the catheter (0.1/1000 catheter days), and 2 catheters were removed because an AV fistula was successfully used. In 21 patients single-needle hemodialysis was performed, mean blood flow 251 +/- 16 mL/min (250-300), mean Kt/V 0.96 +/- 0.16 (0.72-1.27) and in 9 patients double-needle hemodialysis was performed (catheter and peripheral vein) with mean blood flow 252 +/- 14 mL/min (200-300), mean Kt/V 1.63 +/- 0.25 (1.21-1.96). 'Temporary' jugular single lumen non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters, with 4% citrate as locking solution and mupirocin ointment at the exit site provided good long-term vascular access with acceptable functioning time and low infection rate. The main reasons for catheter exchange or removal were malfunction and mechanical damage of the catheter.

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