[Two cases of pulmonary infection by Mycobacterium abscessus in which drug susceptibility testing results conflicted with clinical courses]

Yoriko Nishizawa, Masaki Fujimura, Atsurou Tagami, Miki Abo, Chihiro Honjyo, Masahide Yasui, Shinji Nakao
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai Zasshi, the Journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society 2005, 43 (4): 241-6
We encountered two cases of pulmonary infection by Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus). [Case 1] A 66-year-old man who had been treated for non-tuberculous mycobacterium in the past was admitted because of productive cough. His chest X-ray film showed cavitation and direct microscopy of sputum revealed positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB). He was given rifampicin (RFP), ethambutol (EB), and clarythromycin (CAM), and then his symptoms and radiographic findings improved. [Case 2] A 74-year-old man with multiple myeloma as an underlying disease was admitted because of a cavitation found on chest radiography and a positive result for AFB in his sputum. Standard antituberculous drug therapy with isoniazid (INH), RFP, EB, and pyradinamide (PZA) was initiated and then the chest radiographic findings improved. As M. abscessus was isolated two weeks after the induction of therapy, the therapeutic regimen was changed to another combination therapy consisting of EB, clarithromycin (CAM) and ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and then his symptoms and radiographic findings were further improved. In both cases, the bacilli found in their sputum were identified as M. abscessus by DNA hybridization. They were completely resistant to all anti-tuberculosis agents and many antibiotics with a high value of MIC. However, their symptoms, radiographic abnormalities and the results of sputum examination improved following chemotherapy. The results obtained by MIC measurement were inconsistent with the clinical outcomes. The measurement of the MIC value of antibiotics do not necessarily predict its therapeutic effect.

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