Risk factors associated with denture stomatitis in the United States

J D Shulman, F Rivera-Hidalgo, M M Beach
Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 2005, 34 (6): 340-6

BACKGROUND: This study reports denture stomatitis (DS) prevalence from a large USA probability sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III).

METHODS: Oral examinations were performed on 3450 individuals 18-90+ years of age (mean: 59.2; SD: 0.50 years), 57.7% male and 42.3% female. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted for DS using sociodemographic, denture quality, blood analytes, alcohol and tobacco use, history of diabetes, and current antibiotic use as covariates. Odds ratios (OR), adjusted for other covariates in each model (AOR) are presented.

RESULTS: Of 3450 removable denture wearers, 963 (27.9%) had DS. DS prevalence was associated with wearing maxillary (AOR: 6.20) and mandibular (AOR: 5.21) complete dentures continuously; smoking >/=15 cigarettes day (maxillary complete: AOR = 1.31; mandibular complete: AOR = 1.50; maxillary partial: AOR = 2.04); vitamin A deficiency (mandibular complete: AOR = 5.97; maxillary partial: AOR = 5.67; mandibular partial: AOR = 24.42). Maxillary dentures with inadequate relines had approximately half the OR of DS than those with adequate relines (maxillary complete: AOR = 0.42; mandibular complete: AOR = 0.50).

CONCLUSIONS: Denture stomatitis prevalence is associated with the amount of tissue covered by dentures, low vitamin A levels, cigarette smoking, and constant denture wear.

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