Comparison of minimally invasive closed circuit extracorporeal circulation with conventional cardiopulmonary bypass and with off-pump technique in CABG patients: selected parameters of coagulation and inflammatory system

Jens Wippermann, Johannes M Albes, Martin Hartrumpf, Mirko Kaluza, Rüdiger Vollandt, Raimund Bruhin, Thorsten Wahlers
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery 2005, 28 (1): 127-32

OBJECTIVE: Closed circuit extracorporeal circulation (CCECC) has been developed to reduce deleterious effects of standard cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This study compares the effects of CCECC (CORx system), CPB, and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) on red blood cell damage, coagulation activation, fibrinolysis and cytokine expression.

METHODS: Thirty patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Twenty of them were randomized into two groups: CCECC (n = 10), CPB (n = 10). While not randomized, OPCAB (n = 10) served as a separate reference group. CCECC and CPB patients received cardioplegic arrest. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), free hemoglobin (fHb), von Willebrand factor activity (vWf), thrombin-antithrombin-III-complex (TATc), prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F 1+2) and plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAPc) were assessed preoperatively, perioperatively and 24 h postoperatively.

RESULTS: CCECC showed significantly lower red blood cell damage than CPB (fHb: CCECC, 7.1+/- 5.7 micromol/l; CPB, 16.8+/-11.4 micromol/l; P = 0.025; OPCAB, 3.4+/-1.1 micromol/l). Perioperatively, CCECC exhibited significantly lower activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis than CPB, but did not differ from OPCAB (vWf: CCECC, 133+/-52%; CPB, 241+/-128%; P = 0.052; OPCAB, 153+/-58%; TATc: CCECC, 4.7+/-0.9 ng/ml; CPB, 31.1+/-15.8 ng/ml; P < 0.001; OPCAB, 2.4+/-0.6 ng/ml; PAPc: CCECC, 214+/-30 ng/ml; CPB, 897+/-367 ng/ml; P < 0.001; OPCAB, 253+/-98 ng/ml). In contrast, fibrinolysis markers and IL-6 were markedly increased in CCECC postoperatively (PAPc: CCECC, 458+/-98 ng/ml; CPB, 159+/-128 ng/ml; P < 0.001; OPCAB, 262+/-174 ng/ml; IL-6: CCECC, 123.4+/-49.8 pg/dl; CPB, 18.8+/-13.1 pg/dl; P < 0.001; OPCAB, 31.6+/-26.2 pg/dl).

CONCLUSIONS: CCECC for CABG is associated with a significant reduction of red blood cell damage and activation of coagulation cascades similar to OPCAB when compared with conventional CPB while a delayed fibrinolytic and inflammatory activity was observed. These findings require further investigation to verify the promising concept of CCECC.

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