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Bone densitometry and bone biopsy.

Bone densitometry is one of the most frequently used investigations in the assessment and management of patients suspected to have osteoporosis. The current method of choice for measuring BMD is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, because of its high precision and low radiation dose. The initiation and choice of treatment in patients with osteoporosis is critically dependent on the availability of BMD measurements and BMD can also be used to monitor the response to therapy. Transiliac bone biopsy is indicated for selected patients with metabolic bone disease where less invasive investigations have yielded inconclusive results. Under these circumstances it is an invaluable investigation that can be used to differentiate infiltrative disorders from primary abnormalities of osteoblast or osteoclast function.

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Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

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