Effect of different levels of NADH availability on metabolic fluxes of Escherichia coli chemostat cultures in defined medium

Ailen M Sánchez, George N Bennett, Ka-Yiu San
Journal of Biotechnology 2005 June 29, 117 (4): 395-405
Escherichia coli overexpressing a NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from Candida boidinii was grown in chemostat culture on various carbon sources at 0.05 h(-1) dilution rate, under anaerobic conditions using defined medium and compared to a control without the heterologous FDH pathway. Metabolic fluxes, NADH/NAD(+) ratios and NAD(H/(+)) levels were determined under a range of intracellular NADH availability. The effect of NADH manipulation on the distribution of metabolic fluxes in E. coli was assessed under steady-state conditions. The heterologous FDH pathway converts 1 mol of formate into 1 mol of NADH and carbon dioxide, in contrast with the native FDH where no cofactor involvement is present. Previously, we found that this NADH regeneration system doubled the maximum yield of NADH from 2 to 4 mol NADH/mol glucose consumed and reached 4.6 mol NADH/mol of substrate when sorbitol was used as a carbon source in a complex medium. In the current study, it was found that higher NADH yields and NADH/NAD(+) ratios were achieved with our in vivo NADH regeneration system compared to a control lacking the new FDH pathway in the three carbon sources (glucose, gluconate and sorbitol) examined suggesting a more reduced intracellular environment. The total NAD(H/(+)) amounts were very similar for all the combinations studied. It was also found that the ethanol to acetate ratio increased with increased NADH availability. This ratio increased from 1.05 for the control strain in glucose to 9.45 for the strain expressing the heterologous NAD(+)-dependent FDH in sorbitol.

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