Randomized controlled study of mechanical percussion, diuresis, and inversion therapy to assist passage of lower pole renal calculi after shock wave lithotripsy

Edmund Chiong, Sandra Tay Poh Hwee, Li Man Kay, Shen Liang, Revathi Kamaraj, Kesavan Esuvaranathan
Urology 2005, 65 (6): 1070-4

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether mechanical percussion, diuresis, and inversion (PDI) therapy after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) improves the clearance rates of lower pole renal stones.

METHODS: In this single-blind study, 108 patients who underwent SWL treatment for lower pole renal stones with a total diameter of 2 cm or less were prospectively randomized into two groups. One group (n = 49) received SWL only and the other group (n = 59) received a median of four sessions of PDI therapy (range 1 to 12), 1 to 2 weeks after each SWL session. PDI therapy was performed as follows. Patients drank 500 mL of water 30 minutes before therapy; they then lay in a prone Trendelenburg position on a 45 degrees -angle couch, and received continuous 10-minute manual mechanical percussion applied over the flank. Stone clearance was documented with plain abdominal radiography, with additional imaging, if indicated, 1 and 3 months after initial SWL therapy.

RESULTS: The patients from both groups were comparable in terms of total stone diameter, infundibular neck diameter, infundibular length, caliceal height, infundibular-pelvic angles, infundibular-ureteral angles, infundibular-vertebral angles, lower pole cortical thickness, and caliceal number. All patients underwent a maximum of four SWL treatments. For all assessable patients, the radiologically documented complete stone clearance rate at 3 months for the SWL-alone group was 35.4% and for the SWL plus PDI group was 62.5% (chi-square test, P = 0.006).

CONCLUSIONS: PDI therapy is a valuable adjunct in assisting passage of lower pole renal stone fragments after SWL therapy.

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