Proteinase-activated receptor-2 induction by neuroinflammation prevents neuronal death during HIV infection

Farshid Noorbakhsh, Nathalie Vergnolle, Justin C McArthur, Claudia Silva, Mohammed Vodjgani, Patricia Andrade-Gordon, Morley D Hollenberg, Christopher Power
Journal of Immunology 2005 June 1, 174 (11): 7320-9
Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), a newly discovered subgroup of G-protein coupled receptors, are widely expressed by neural cells, but their roles in the nervous system remain uncertain. In this study, we report that PAR-2 was up-regulated on neurons in conjunction with neuroinflammation in brain tissue from patients with HIV-1-associated dementia. The inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta were also increased in HIV-1-associated dementia brains compared with patients without dementia (p < 0.05), but these same cytokines induced PAR-2 expression on neurons. Enhanced PAR-2 expression and subsequent activation prevented neuronal cell death and induction of the tumor suppressor, p53, caused by the HIV-encoded protein, Tat (p < 0.01). Intrastriatal implantation of a PAR-2 peptide agonist also inhibited Tat-induced neurotoxicity in a mouse model of HIV neuropathogenesis (p < 0.05). Moreover, PAR-2 null animals showed more severe neuroinflammation and neuronal loss caused by Tat neurotoxicity (p < 0.05). TNF-alpha protected wild-type neurons from Tat-related neurotoxicity, but in PAR-2-deficient neurons, the same concentrations of TNF-alpha were cytotoxic (p < 0.001). Thus, neuroinflammation can exert protective effects by which it induces PAR-2 expression with the ensuing abrogation of neuronal death.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"