Surgery for acute type A aortic dissection: the effect of antegrade selective cerebral perfusion on the early outcome of elderly patients

Marco Di Eusanio, Marc A A M Schepens, Wim J Morshuis, Roberto Di Bartolomeo, Davide Pacini, Giuseppe Di Eusanio, Teruhisa Kazui, Naoki Washiyama
Italian Heart Journal: Official Journal of the Italian Federation of Cardiology 2005, 6 (4): 335-40

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate early results and to determine predictive risk factors associated with an adverse outcome in elderly patients after acute type A aortic dissection repair using antegrade selective cerebral perfusion (ASCP). Adverse outcome was defined as the occurrence of death or permanent neurologic dysfunction.

METHODS: From October 1995 to March 2002, 178 patients (group A < 75 years, n = 156, 87.6%; group B > 75 years, n = 22, 12.4%) underwent surgery for acute type A aortic dissection using ASCP and moderate hypothermia. An ascending aorta/hemiarch replacement was performed in 128/178 (71.9%) patients (group A 71.2%, group B 77.3%, p = NS), an ascending aorta and arch replacement in 50/178 (28.1%) patients (group A 28.8%, group B 22.7%, p = NS). Associated procedures were performed in 55/178 (20.9%) patients (group A 31.4%, group B 27.3%, p = NS), the arch vessels were reimplanted using the separated graft technique in 32/50 (64.0%) patients (group A 62.2%, group B 80.0%, p = NS). The mean ASCP time was 59 +/- 27 min.

RESULTS: The overall adverse outcome rate was 20.8% (group A 21.2%, group B 18.2%, p = NS). The transient neurologic dysfunction rate was 9.5% (group A 9.5%, group B 5.6%, p = NS). A logistic regression analysis revealed cardiopulmonary bypass time (p = 0.045, odds ratio 1.03/min) to be the only independent predictor of adverse outcome in group A.

CONCLUSIONS: During type A aortic dissection repair the implementation of ASCP resulted in an acceptable hospital mortality and neurologic outcome. If ASCP is used, the risk of hospital mortality and postoperative morbidity is similar in patients younger and older than 75 years. Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass still remains an important risk factor for hospital mortality and neurologic outcome in elderly patients.

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