Enhanced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in response to endotoxin after trauma is dependent on MAPK and NF-kappaB mechanisms

Zhaoping Yan, Philip P Stapleton, Tracy A Freeman, Michele Fuortes, John M Daly
Cellular Immunology 2004, 232 (1): 116-26
Macrophage prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production is important in cellular immune suppression and in affecting the potential development of sepsis after trauma. We hypothesized that macrophage PGE2 production after trauma is regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). Mice were subjected to trauma and splenic macrophages isolated 7 days later. Macrophages from traumatized mice showed increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA, protein expression, and PGE2 production compared with controls. Increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 kinase was observed in macrophages from traumatized mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of MAPK blocked trauma-induced COX-2 expression, and PGE2 production. Trauma macrophages showed increased IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and NF-kappaB binding to DNA. Inhibiting IkappaBalpha blocked trauma-induced NF-kappaB activity, COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. This suggests that trauma-induced PGE2 production is mediated through MAPK and NF-kappaB activation and offers potential for modifying the macrophages' responses following injury.

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