Trafficking of normal stem cells and metastasis of cancer stem cells involve similar mechanisms: pivotal role of the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis

Magda Kucia, Ryan Reca, Katarzyna Miekus, Jens Wanzeck, Wojtek Wojakowski, Anna Janowska-Wieczorek, Janina Ratajczak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Stem Cells 2005, 23 (7): 879-94
The alpha-chemokine stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1 and the G-protein-coupled seven-span transmembrane receptor CXCR4 axis regulates the trafficking of various cell types. In this review, we present the concept that the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis is a master regulator of trafficking of both normal and cancer stem cells. Supporting this is growing evidence that SDF-1 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of trafficking of normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their homing/retention in bone marrow. Moreover, functional CXCR4 is also expressed on nonhematopoietic tissue-committed stem/progenitor cells (TCSCs); hence, the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis emerges as a pivotal regulator of trafficking of various types of stem cells in the body. Furthermore, because most if not all malignancies originate in the stem/progenitor cell compartment, cancer stem cells also express CXCR4 on their surface and, as a result, the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis is also involved in directing their trafficking/metastasis to organs that highly express SDF-1 (e.g., lymph nodes, lungs, liver, and bones). Hence, we postulate that the metastasis of cancer stem cells and trafficking of normal stem cells involve similar mechanisms, and we discuss here the common molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. Finally, the responsiveness of CXCR4+ normal and malignant stem cells to an SDF-1 gradient may be regulated positively/primed by several small molecules related to inflammation which enhance incorporation of CXCR4 into membrane lipid rafts, or may be inhibited/blocked by small CXCR4 antagonist peptides. Consequently, strategies aimed at modulating the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis could have important clinical applications both in regenerative medicine to deliver normal stem cells to the tissues/organs and in clinical hematology/oncology to inhibit metastasis of cancer stem cells.

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